‏إظهار الرسائل ذات التسميات Egyptian. إظهار كافة الرسائل
‏إظهار الرسائل ذات التسميات Egyptian. إظهار كافة الرسائل

6/21/2017

How Egypt and Saudi are serving Israel by transferring Sanafir and Tiran

How Egypt and Saudi are serving Israel by transferring Sanafir and Tiran

in 1967, Egypt announced a blocked the Straits of Tiran to cut Israel's access to international waters; it was then that Israel started the Six Day War.
The small islands of Sanafir and Tiran are located between Egypt and Saudi Arabia at the top of the Red Sea and they are considered to be strategically important because of their proximity to ports in Jordan and Israel.
Barely a month before Israel launched the Six Day War against Arab countries, Gamal Abdel Nasser’s Egypt announced a blockade of Israel’s access to the Red Sea (international waters) via the Straits of Tiran, which Israel considered as an act of war. As a result, less than a month later, Israel launched a surprise strike which began the Six-Day War. From that time on, the two strategic islands, Sanafir and Tiran are placed under the authority of Egypt.
Two weeks ago, Cairo agreed to hand control over the two islands — Tiran and Sanafir — to Riyadh in exchange for the creation of a $16-billion investment fund.
This announcement was made after secret negotiations in which Israel was involved due to the limitation clauses of the peace treaty at Camp David in 1979. In other words, the transfer of the two islands to Saudi Arabia helps Israel more control over the strategic straits of Tiran and circumvent the Camp David limitations in this regard, as Saudi has already given solid assurances in this regard.
“There is an agreement and commitments that Egypt accepted related to these islands, and the kingdom is committed to these,” Saudi Foreign Minister Adel al-Jubeir told Egyptian television in an interview two weeks ago.
He was apparently referring to the military annex of the Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty, which ensured Israel’s “freedom of navigation through the strait of Tiran”
Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon later said that Saudi Arabia gave written
assurances over Freedom of passage in Tiran straits.
   
http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2017/06/egypt-lawmakers-approve-island-transfer-saudi-arabia-170614142446099.html
Saudi Arabia has also promised not to use the islands for military purposes, the Egyptian daily Al Ahram reported.
According to documents from a military source, Tiran Island will be used as the headquarter of a joint operation between Tel Aviv and Riyadh in the Red Sea.
In 2015, a number of Saudi Arabia officers also attended in a training course at the naval base Polonium in the port of Haifa, the military source disclosed.
This proves that Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt are involved in a new era of geo-strategic and diplomatic relations which may be considered as a major event in tripartite relations.
Egypt therefore has just shifted the sovereignty of the two inhabited islands of the Red Sea, Tiran and Sanafir to Saudi Arabia. The islands are south of Suez and between the two countries.
Indeed, north of the Gulf of Aqaba is the city and Israeli port of Eilat. The transfer of the two islands is of major strategic importance to the Zionist entity considering that the closure of the Strait of Tiran would mean a major crisis for Israel and will most likely lead to a regional war .
Israel has good relations with Egypt since the Camp David peace accords between the two countries who share security interests, including the fight against the Palestinian resistance in Gaza.
As for Saudi Arabia, Egypt remains a strategic ally, in particular regarding the issue that Riyadh has serious tensions with Iran, and also with respect to the conflicts in Syria and Yemen.
The transfer of these two islands to Riyadh, also shows an increasingly strong connections between Saudi Arabia and Israel. Although the two countries still lack formal links, and while Saudi Arabia does not recognize the existence of the Zionist criminal entity, the Israeli-Saudi dialogue has been an open secret for several years in the geopolitical world. Indeed, senior officials from both countries met in public on several occasions.
We are witnessing the reconfiguration of regional relations with the emergence of an alliance, Saudi Arabia – Egypt – Israel, whose main objective is very clear: to counter the growing power of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the spearhead of the anti-Zionist resistance.
It is sad to see the apathy of the Muslim world which faces the treachery of its leaders, joining the axis of oppression besides collaborating with the Israeli criminal state.
On Tuesday 13th of June, dozens of Egyptian journalists protested against the agreement in central Cairo before being dispersed by the police.
The announcement of the agreement in April 2016 had sparked rare protests in the country despite a heavy handed crackdown on demonstrations.
Generations of Egyptians had grown up learning in school that the two islands belonged to their country and that soldiers had died defending them during wars with Israel.

1/17/2017

Dahab the Paradise on Earth



If you’re searching for relaxation, comfort and pleasure, then look no further than the Red Sea town of Dahab.
Dahab is one of the most beautiful cities in the world with its moderate climate and gushing waves that crawl gently to the shore. People in Dahab are also often described as cheerful and hospitable.
In Dahab, you will find all that you need, ranging from delightful food options to plenty of lifestyle activities. This is complemented by Dahab’s relaxing and comfortable nature which takes you away from the hustle and bustle of major cities such as Cairo.
Below, I look at some of the things I recommend you do in Dahab during your visit.

Must Do Activities in Dahab
Water Sports
Dahab is an ideal place for an aquaphile. From snorkeling and scuba diving, to windsurfing, kitesurfing and much more, water sports and activities are abundantly available across the town.
For those who aren’t so fond of the water, there are many other options available. You can participate in yoga classes, cycling, and even hiking nearby mountains where you can drink special blends of hot tea from traditional Bedouins.
This isn’t all you can do though! There are many other exciting activities you can participate in, like riding camels and beach buggies amidst the beauty of the Sinai desert.

Places You Must Visit
Blue Hole
blue_hole
The Blue Hole is a beautiful place for people fond of scuba diving, free diving, and snorkeling. Here, you will find colorful and exotic types of fish. You might even spot ‘Nemo’ the clownfish swimming around!
Personally, one of the most amazing types of fish I ever witnessed while at the Blue Hole was the Lionfish. But be careful if you see one, as a sting from the lionfish can be extremely painful, if not fatal.
It’s also difficult to ignore the breathtaking coral reefs in Dahab which transport you to a completely different world.

Laguna
Laguna
While not quite as amazing as the Blue Hole, Laguna is still beautiful. Here, coral reefs are not near the shore, requiring you to swim a little in order to see them. The place is also suitable for people who don’t like water activities. You can go there to relax and enjoy the excellent taste of Bedouin tea.



Light House
Light House


At Light House, you will be able to practice scuba diving and snorkeling. This place is perfect for anyone wanting to see some coral reefs as the reefs are close to the shore. The place is excellent and suitable for people who can’t swim because the coral is near to the shore, so you don’t have to swim to see the coral and the amazing fish. Also, for people who want to try diving for the first time, the Light House is suitable for them.  Simply put, the place is easy to access and suitable for all types of water activities and for people with different skill levels.
The Canyon
the canyon
Personally my favorite place, the Canyon offers a diverse range of fish and coral. This place is suitable for scuba diving and snorkeling.
I prefer this place because I saw different kinds of fish and corals there that I hadn’t see in any other place. Not only are the fish and corals distinct in this location, but also the diving is different as a result of it. The Canyon is a unique place to dive in and offers a different underwater experience.
Abu Galum
abu galum
Abu Galum is a calm location you can visit by boat or camel. Located just 20 minutes from the Blue Hole, Abu Galum is great for snorkeling and scuba diving. Even better, you can enjoy tasty Bedouin delicacies here!
Blue Lagoon
Blue Lagoon


Blue Lagoon is one of the most calm and relaxed places in Dahab. Here you can enjoy Kitesurfing or simply soak up the sun while reading a book

12/02/2016

The rape of a dog in Egypt

 The rape of a dog in Egypt

This's Anastasia, she used to live in front of my building in october .. Anastasia was extremely friendly. during the last months, the rest of her pack was shoot by gun by a stuid officer who lives close to me but i dont know him! (20+ dogs) 5 days ago she found her in pain, bleeding from behind with her nether area completely shredded. "Check the photos" we took to dr khaled ali and turns out she was RAPED! .. we had to make her a surgery as we also found a tumer which got bigger and had pus because of the raping! full hysterectomy and we removed the tumer but shes still on medications! after the surgery we took her to a kennel but she was so sad , cold, and scared so i couldnt keep her for long. I took her and i'm still looking for a place to take her of her for the first 2 3 weeks .. she needs a special care! and medical care! P.S. she didnt take any of her medications today so plz someone help me! I dont know how to clean wounds or give injects! 
also i cant control her alone .. plz someone help me! I live in october and i dont have a place for her! someone can take her to her place but i have to find someone to help me transfer her! and give her her medications as well coz the girl also doesnt have anymedical experience or experience with dogs!















11/28/2016

Conscription army in Egypt فيلم العساكر .. حكايات التجنيد الإجباري في مصر

 Conscription army in Egypt
فيلم العساكر .. حكايات التجنيد الإجباري في مصر





5/19/2016

EgyptAir Flight 804 vanishes from radar with 66 people aboard


EgyptAir Flight 804 vanishes from radar with 66 people aboard

EgyptAir Flight 804 vanishes from radar with 66 people aboard



The plane was flying at 37,000 feet when it lost contact overnight above the Mediterranean Sea, the airline tweeted. French President Francois Hollande said he was told the flight crashed, but Egyptian Civil Aviation Minister Sharif Fathi said he preferred to classify the flight as missing.
"We do not deny there is a possibility of terrorism or deny the possibility of technical fault," Fathi said at a Cairo news conference. "I will continue to use the term missing plane until we find any debris."
For now, finding the airplane and any possible survivors is the priority, authorities said.
Somber relatives gathered in Cairo and Paris airports, seeking word on their loved ones. They were taken to special centers at both airports, where translators and psychiatric support awaited. In Cairo's airport, dozens of relatives paced anxiously in a building set aside for families. Some shouted at photographers taking pictures of them, while others berated officials over the perceived lack of information.
Live updates: Missing flight MS804

Latest developments

-- Greek Defense Minister Panos Kammenos told reporters that search operations have not yet turned up anything.
-- The airplane "swerved and then plunged" before descending into the Mediterranean, the Greek minister told reporters.
-- Greek controllers tried to reach EgyptAir Flight 804 about 10 miles before it left the country's airspace and for about 90 seconds after and received no response, the head of the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority told Greek broadcaster ANT1 TV.
-- Prosecutors in Paris have opened an investigation into the disappearance of the plane, the office said in a statement. "No hypothesis is privileged or pushed aside for the moment," the statement said.

What happened

The flight seemed to be proceeding normally until it approached Egyptian airspace. Greek controllers talked to the pilot when the plane was near the Greek island of Kea at 37,000 feet at an air speed of 519 mph. Everything seemed fine at that point.
At 3:27 a.m. local time, shortly before the aircraft was scheduled to exit Greek airspace, controllers tried to reach the pilots to transfer control to Cairo authorities. Despite repeated attempts, they received no response, the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority said. The plane passed into Egyptian airspace two minutes later. Forty seconds later, radar contact was lost, the authority said.
Weather conditions were clear at the time,meteorologist Pedram Javaheri said.

4/20/2016

السيسى اللى هيقتل اى حد من المتظاهرين مش هيتحاكم



السيسى اللى هيقتل اى حد من المتظاهرين مش هيتحاكم

  المواطن المصرى مالهوش دية 




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qr code

2/12/2016

Freedom In Egypt Report


TREND ARROW: 

Egypt received a downward trend arrow due to the complete marginalization of the opposition, state surveillance of electronic communications, public exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities, and the mass trials and unjustified imprisonment of members of the Muslim Brotherhood.



OVERVIEW: 

The military effectively controlled Egypt at the beginning of 2014, with no elected president or legislature in place following the June 2013 coup against then president Mohamed Morsi. In January, the interim government heavily promoted a new constitution to replace one adopted under Morsi. Authorities prevented organized campaigning against the new charter, which passed a referendum that month amid low voter turnout.

A presidential election was held May 26 to 28 following a brief and tightly managed campaign period. Former army field marshal and defense minister Abdel Fattah al-Sisi won a lopsided victory, credited with more than 95 percent of the vote. Observers noted major flaws in the process, however, and the sole opposition candidate, leftist politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, publicly questioned the official results.

The government harshly restricted dissent and assembly by activists from across the political spectrum during the year. The media were also targeted, with authorities harassing and sometimes jailing journalists who reported on political opposition of any kind.
An armed insurgency in the Sinai Peninsula continued to grow. In October, authorities began demolishing hundreds of homes along the border with the Gaza Strip in an effort to halt the flow of weapons and militants through the area.
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POLITICAL RIGHTS AND CIVIL LIBERTIES: 
 
Political Rights: 8 / 40 (−1) [Key]
A. Electoral Process: 2 / 12 (+1)
In July 2013, following massive protests calling for the resignation of elected president Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), the armed forces overthrew Morsi, suspended the constitution, and dissolved the upper house of Parliament. The military installed a nominally civilian interim government, but remained heavily involved in the political system. The courts had already dissolved the FJP-dominated lower house in 2012.




A new constitution was passed in a referendum on January 14 and 15, 2014, after a campaign period in which authorities effectively banned all expression of opposition to the charter. According to official results, the constitution received 98.1 percent of the vote, amid 38.6 percent turnout. The referendum was held in a tense atmosphere, with more than 350,000 security personnel deployed throughout the country, sporadically clashing with Islamists and other government opponents. Most Islamist groups boycotted the vote, arguing that the process was an illegitimate product of the 2013 coup.
The new constitution nominally improved protections for women’s rights, freedom of expression, and other civil liberties. However, these rights were not enforced in practice, and the charter suffered from significant flaws, including an expansion of police and military autonomy and a provision allowing military trials of civilians.
A presidential election was held in May after an uneventful 20-day campaign period. Sisi and Sabbahi were the only two candidates; a third dropped out just before the registration deadline, claiming he had received a divine signal that Sisi would win. Very low turnout on the first two days of voting prompted authorities to extend the process to a third day. Reports of other electoral irregularities included the use of state resources to support Sisi’s candidacy, voter intimidation by government workers and Sisi supporters, and arrests or assaults of poll monitors. The Sabbahi campaign withdrew its monitors in response to such violations. Sisi officially received more than 95 percent of the vote amid nearly 48 percent turnout, though Sabbahi and others questioned those figures, and no independent verification of the results was available. Sisi was sworn in on June 8. Under the new constitution, he could serve up to two four-year terms.
The constitution called for the election of a unicameral Parliament, but no such elections were held during 2014. With no legislature in place, the executive branch ruled by decree throughout the year. A June decree on parliamentary elections, coupled with a December measure on electoral districts, assigned 420 of the 567 seats to nonpartisan independent candidates, 120 to party lists, and 27 to presidential appointees. The arrangement was widely believed to disadvantage opposition parties and favor local power brokers with ties to the government.

B. Political Pluralism and Participation: 4 / 16 (−2)
Since the 2013 coup, the military has dominated the political system, and all opposition forces have been thoroughly marginalized. Large numbers of Muslim Brotherhood members and supporters, including nearly all of the organization’s senior leadership and Morsi himself, were arrested at the time of the coup or in the subsequent months, and an estimated 16,000 people were behind bars for political reasons as of mid-2014. Authorities declared the Brotherhood a terrorist organization in December 2013, which allowed them to charge anyone participating in a pro-Morsi demonstration with terrorism and laid a foundation for the complete political isolation of the Islamist opposition. The new constitution banned parties based on religion.
The government has also pursued non-Islamist critics, including prominent political scientists Emad Shahin, who was accused of espionage, and Amr Hamzawy, who was charged with insulting the judiciary, both in early 2014. Alaa Abdel Fattah, perhaps Egypt’s best-known secular activist, was in detention at year’s end, awaiting retrial and a possible sentence of 15 years in prison for violating a highly restrictive law on public protests. In another severe blow to liberal political activism, a court in April banned the April 6 movement, one of the prodemocracy groups that catalyzed the January 2011 uprising against longtime authoritarian president Hosni Mubarak.
The military leadership publicly endorsed Sisi’s presidential candidacy, calling it a “mandate and an obligation” to the masses. The interim president—whose own authority rested on a military decree—promoted Sisi to the rank of field marshal in January. Sisi resigned from the army when he formally announced his election bid, but he reportedly used military resources to fund his campaign and maintained a close relationship with the armed forces after taking office. The new constitution increased the military’s independence from civilian oversight, including through the selection of the defense minister, who must be a military officer.

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C. Functioning of Government: 2 / 12
Corruption is pervasive at all levels of government. Egypt was ranked 94 out of 175 countries and territories in Transparency International’s 2014 Corruption Perceptions Index. Official mechanisms for investigating and punishing corrupt behavior remain very weak, and the major revelations and prosecutions that emerged after Mubarak’s ouster in 2011 have faltered since the 2013 coup. Mubarak himself was sentenced to three years in prison for embezzlement in May 2014, and his two sons received four years each. However, appeals were pending at year’s end, and a number of other charges against the men were dropped in November.
As with its predecessors, the Sisi administration offered very little transparency regarding government operations and budget making. The military is notoriously opaque with respect to its own extensive business interests across several sectors of the Egyptian economy.
There was a civil society consultation process for the new constitution, though civic and opposition groups did not have a significant impact on the final document, and the drafting committee itself was not representative of the general population.

Civil Liberties: 18 / 60 (−4)
D. Freedom of Expression and Belief: 5 / 16 (−1)
Military authorities shut down virtually all Islamist and opposition media outlets following the 2013 coup and pressured others if they carried any critical coverage of the new government. As a result, state media and most surviving private outlets are openly pro-military and pro-Sisi.
Official censorship and self-censorship remained widespread in 2014. In October, the government seized an entire press run of Egypt’s largest private newspaper, Al-Masry al-Youm, because it included a sensitive interview with a former intelligence officer. Security forces later detained the paper’s editor in chief and a reporter to question them about their investigation of fraud in the 2012 presidential election. Separately, political comedian Bassem Youssef suspended his satirical television show in June, citing extensive pressure to refrain from criticizing the government; the show had already moved to a Dubai-based broadcaster after an Egyptian station pulled it in late 2013.
The government has conducted an ongoing offensive against Qatar’s Al-Jazeera television network, which is considered sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood. In late June 2014, a court sentenced three Al-Jazeera journalists to at least seven years in prison each on charges of conspiring with the Brotherhood to publish false news. The convictions followed a farcical trial in which prosecutors presented no credible evidence of the alleged crimes. An appeal was pending at year’s end. Arrests of other journalists on dubious charges continued during 2014, and media workers had increasing difficulty accessing or reporting on the Sinai.
Islam is the state religion, and most Egyptians are Sunni Muslims. Coptic Christians form a substantial minority, and there are very small numbers of Jews, Shiite Muslims, and Baha’is. The 2014 constitution made the right to freedom of religion “absolute” and was well received by religious minorities, though little has changed in practice since the document’s adoption. Some Morsi supporters considered the Coptic community to be partly responsible for his overthrow and attacked Copts and their property in retaliation. Only an estimated 10 percent of the dozens of churches and businesses damaged in such attacks in 2013 had been rebuilt by late 2014.
Anyone whose appearance or dress suggests adherence to a conservative form of Islam continues to be at risk of arrest or harassment. An atmosphere of insecurity and repression prevailed throughout 2014, with the government dictating weekly sermon themes at mosques and closely monitoring political speech at religious institutions. Authorities also stepped up pressure on perceived atheists, enforcing laws against blasphemy and raiding supposed gathering places for atheists in November and December.
Academic freedom has suffered since the 2013 coup. Despite a ban on political activity, universities have been a center of antigovernment demonstrations and the target of a government crackdown. Sisi appoints university presidents and has empowered university officials to expel and further marginalize antigovernment students. Hundreds of students were arrested for demonstrating against the government over the course of 2014.
Private discussion has become more guarded in the face of vigilantism and increased monitoring of social media for opposition-oriented content. Media personalities have called on the public to inform on anyone they suspect of undermining the state, and some arrests have been reported stemming from overheard conversations in public places.

E. Associational and Organizational Rights: 4 / 12
Freedoms of assembly and association are tightly restricted. A November 2013 decree gave police great leeway to ban and forcibly disperse gatherings of 10 or more people. The law also prohibits all protests at places of worship and requires protest organizers to inform police at least three days in advance. Protests against the government continued throughout 2014, but they often ended in violent clashes with police and local residents, and police repeatedly used excessive force. On the third anniversary of the 2011 uprising in January, authorities responded to secularist and Islamist demonstrations with tear gas and live ammunition, resulting in at least 49 deaths and more than 1,000 arrests.
The 2002 Law on Associations grants the government sweeping powers over nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), including the ability to shut down the groups, confiscate their funding, and block nominations to their governing boards. Individuals working with unregistered groups face prison terms for engaging in “unauthorized activities.” The government has in the past permitted NGOs to operate without registration, enforcing the law when it becomes politically expedient. Under a decree issued in September 2014, members of NGOs that use foreign funding to commit acts that “harm the national interest” face life imprisonment and fines of nearly $70,000. If an offender is a public servant or committed the violation for the purposes of terrorism, he or she could face the death penalty.
Strikes played a significant role in the 2011 uprising, and workers subsequently formed an independent union federation, ending the long-standing monopoly of the state-allied federation. The labor movement was dampened somewhat after Morsi’s ouster, as authorities clamped down on strikes and accused those involved of sympathizing with the Muslim Brotherhood. Strikes began to increase again in early 2014, particularly around demands for the nationwide expansion of a new minimum wage that had been granted to some public-sector workers. Authorities responded with raids, arrests, and intimidation.

F. Rule of Law: 2 / 16 (−2)
The Supreme Judicial Council, a supervisory body of senior judges, nominates most members of the judiciary. However, the Justice Ministry plays a key role in assignments and transfers, giving it undue influence over the courts. The judiciary was at the center of the political process following the 2013 coup. Supreme Constitutional Court chairman Adli Mansour served as interim president, and judges played a leading role in the drafting of the constitution. The new charter significantly enhances the judiciary’s autonomy, including by allowing each major judicial entity to receive its budget as a single line item and permitting the Supreme Constitutional Court to appoint its own chairman.
A number of criminal cases in 2014 featured severe violations of due process and demonstrated a high degree of politicization in the court system, which typically resulted in harsh punishments for perceived enemies of the government. Three deeply flawed mass trials in March, April, and December led to death sentences for 1,400 suspected Islamists, though most were later reduced to life in prison.
The new constitution allows for trials of civilians by military courts, which have traditionally been used to target government critics. Charges brought in military courts are often vague or fabricated, defendants are denied due process, and basic evidentiary standards are routinely disregarded.
Police brutality and impunity for abuses by security forces were catalysts for the 2011 uprising, but there has been no security-sector reform in the subsequent four years. Prison conditions are very poor; inmates are subject to torture, overcrowding, and a lack of sanitation and medical care. In December 2014 a local human rights group accused the police of holding hundreds of minors in harsh conditions after they were arrested for protesting and related offenses.
Egypt was under a state of emergency from 1981 until May 2012, and for three months following the 2013 coup. The Emergency Law grants the government extensive powers of surveillance and detention. In October 2014, after coordinated attacks by militants killed more than 30 soldiers, authorities declared a three-month state of emergency in large areas of the Sinai and instituted a nightly curfew. In November, the region’s most prominent militant faction, Ansar Beit al-Maqdis, declared its loyalty to the Islamic State, the extremist group based in Syria and Iraq.
The authorities in 2014 appeared to step up enforcement of laws against “debauchery,” particularly targeting men perceived as gay. In an increasingly common occurrence, six men were sentenced to two years in prison in September after they were arrested in a raid on an apartment that the authorities claimed was a central location for same-sex sexual activity. Eight men arrested under the same charge that month, in connection with a video of a supposed same-sex wedding, received reduced sentences of one year in jail after being subjected to forced medical examinations to determine if they had engaged in sex with other men. A televised raid on a bathhouse in December resulted in debauchery charges against 26 men.

G. Personal Autonomy and Individual Rights: 7 / 16 (−1)
--> --> Freedom of movement and property rights were both severely affected by the government’s counterinsurgency efforts in the Sinai in 2014. In addition to the curfew and other travel restrictions, beginning in October the military summarily demolished hundreds of homes in the town of Rafah to create a secure buffer zone along the border with the Gaza Strip, displacing more than 1,000 families. Also during the year, a number of foreign scholars and activists were barred entry to the country.
Unlike Egypt’s past constitutions, which have limited women’s rights to those compatible with Islamic law, the 2014 constitution clearly affirms the equality of the sexes. However, this has not resulted in practical improvements for women. Some laws and traditional practices discriminate against women, job discrimination is common, and Muslim women are disadvantaged by personal status laws. Domestic violence is widespread. Spousal rape is not illegal, and the penal code allows for leniency in so-called honor killings. Other problems include forced marriages, human trafficking, and high rates of female genital mutilation or cutting.
Violence against women has surfaced in new ways since 2011, particularly as women have participated in demonstrations and faced increased levels of sexual violence in public. This includes sexual harassment on the street, and severe cases of group sexual assaults at public gatherings. A June 2014 decree criminalized sexual harassment, with prison terms of up to five years and fines of up to $7,000, but critics argued that the law was inadequate, citing a lack of protection for witnesses among its weak points. In July, seven men were sentenced to life in prison for attempted murder and other offenses in a series of group sexual assaults committed in Cairo’s Tahrir Square. After a video circulated of one such assault, in which a crowd stripped and beat a woman on the night of Sisi’s inauguration, the government had vowed a stronger response to the attacks.

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X = Score Received
Y = Best Possible Score
Z = Change from Previous Year



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