‏إظهار الرسائل ذات التسميات Sports. إظهار كافة الرسائل
‏إظهار الرسائل ذات التسميات Sports. إظهار كافة الرسائل

4/13/2013

Sleeping with the Enemy

What happened between the Neanderthals and us?


The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, in Leipzig, is a large, mostly glass building shaped a bit like a banana. The institute sits at the southern edge of the city, in a neighborhood that still very much bears the stamp of its East German past. If you walk down the street in one direction, you come to a block of Soviet-style apartment buildings; in the other, to a huge hall with a golden steeple, which used to be known as the Soviet Pavilion. (The pavilion is now empty.) In the lobby of the institute there’s a cafeteria and an exhibit on great apes. A TV in the cafeteria plays a live feed of the orangutans at the Leipzig Zoo.
Svante Pääbo heads the institute’s department of evolutionary genetics. He is tall and lanky, with a long face, a narrow chin, and bushy eyebrows, which he often raises to emphasize some sort of irony. Pääbo’s office is dominated by a life-size model of a Neanderthal skeleton, propped up so that its feet dangle over the floor, and by a larger-than-life-size portrait that his graduate students presented to him on his fiftieth birthday. Each of the students painted a piece of the portrait, the over-all effect of which is a surprisingly good likeness of Pääbo, but in mismatched colors that make it look as if he had a skin disease.
At any given moment, Pääbo has at least half a dozen research efforts in progress. When I visited him in May, he had one team analyzing DNA that had been obtained from a forty- or fifty-thousand-year-old finger bone found in Siberia, and another trying to extract DNA from a cache of equally ancient bones from China. A third team was slicing open the brains of mice that had been genetically engineered to produce a human protein.
In Pääbo’s mind, at least, these research efforts all hang together. They are attempts to solve a single problem in evolutionary genetics, which might, rather dizzyingly, be posed as: What made us the sort of animal that could create a transgenic mouse?
The question of what defines the human has, of course, been kicking around since Socrates, and probably a lot longer. If it has yet to be satisfactorily resolved, then this, Pääbo suspects, is because it has never been properly framed. “The challenge is to address the questions that are answerable,” he told me.
Pääbo’s most ambitious project to date, which he has assembled an international consortium to assist him with, is an attempt to sequence the entire genome of the Neanderthal. The project is about halfway complete and has already yielded some unsettling results, including the news, announced by Pääbo last year, that modern humans, before doing in the Neanderthals, must have interbred with them.
Once the Neanderthal genome is complete, scientists will be able to lay it gene by gene—indeed, base by base—against the human, and see where they diverge. At that point, Pääbo believes, an answer to the age-old question will finally be at hand. Neanderthals were very closely related to modern humans—so closely that we shared our prehistoric beds with them—and yet clearly they were not humans. Somewhere among the genetic disparities must lie the mutation or, more probably, mutations that define us. Pääbo already has a team scanning the two genomes, drawing up lists of likely candidates.
“I want to know what changed in fully modern humans, compared with Neanderthals, that made a difference,” he said. “What made it possible for us to build up these enormous societies, and spread around the globe, and develop the technology that I think no one can doubt is unique to humans. There has to be a genetic basis for that, and it is hiding somewhere in these lists.”
Pääbo, who is now fifty-six, grew up in Stockholm. His mother, a chemist, was an Estonian refugee. For a time, she worked in the laboratory of a biochemist named Sune Bergström, who later won a Nobel Prize. Pääbo was the product of a lab affair between the two, and, although he knew who his father was, he wasn’t supposed to discuss it. Bergström had a wife and another son; Pääbo’s mother, meanwhile, never married. Every Saturday, Bergström would visit Pääbo and take him for a walk in the woods, or somewhere else where he didn’t think he’d be recognized.
“Officially, at home, he worked on Saturday,” Pääbo told me. “It was really crazy. His wife knew. But they never talked about it. She never tried to call him at work on Saturdays.” As a child, Pääbo wasn’t particularly bothered by the whole arrangement; later, he occasionally threatened to knock on Bergström’s door. “I would say, ‘You have to tell your son—your other son—because he will find out sometime,’ ” he recalled. Bergström would promise to do this, but never followed through. (As a result, Bergström’s other son did not learn that Pääbo existed until shortly before Bergström’s death, in 2004.)
From an early age, Pääbo was interested in old things. He discovered that around fallen trees it was sometimes possible to find bits of pottery made by prehistoric Swedes, and he filled his room with potsherds. When he was a teen-ager, his mother took him to visit the Pyramids, and he was entranced. He enrolled at Uppsala University, planning to become an Egyptologist.

3/09/2013

#9March : The trial part 2 #UA07 #PortSaid

#9March : The trial part 2 #UA07 #PortSaid

Egypt is holding again its breath as we will resume the trial of the Port Said stadium clashes. Today expectedly the New Cairo Criminal court will announce its final verdicts regarding all the defendants.
I said expectedly because there are leaks regarding today’s verdicts. One of the most important leak comes from the presidency itself , from none other than the President’s advisor for legal affairs Mr. Jadallah who claimed that the trial will be adjourned.
Another scenario expected after leaks that the official 21 defendants’ death sentence announcement will be adjourned because the new Mufti has to study the case “more than 1000 papers” to issue his decision regarding the death sentence. If the case is delayed , things will be extremely bad.
The Ultras boys began to show up at Ahly Club. Some say that their numbers are less than the numbers that showed up on last 26 January 2013. If not all the Ultras members show up at Ahly club in Zamalek then the rest of them are going to appear else where.
The Ultras at Ahly Club "Kareem Yaccoub"


Some eye witnesses say that a group of Ultras members appeared in Tahrir square Metro station. Either they head from there to Ahly Club or the Ministry of interior.
It is worth to mention that the army built at night another wall near the ministry of interior.
On the other hand Port Said is also anticipating the verdict. The police disappeared totally from the city. Most shops are closed. You know the calm before the storm. This is Port Said now.
Calm Port Said "Haitham El Tabei"
Live update below
The army helicopters are back hovering in Port Said’s sky.
The families of the Ultras martyrs have not showed at the court strangely.
The court room from Egyptian TV "Kareem Yaccoub"
Here is a link with Live broadcast from several TV channels in Egypt. The National Egyptian TV has got the exclusive rights to air the trial from the court room in the Police academy. The National Egyptian TV sold the broadcast like in football matches.
Live coverage in the way  

 ألتراس يشعلون النار في نادي ضباط الشرطة في القاهرة